Improvements to sequencing and cloning techniques are allowing researchers to review microorganisms in environmental samples, and new understanding of species community and interactions dynamics is emerging. The identification of microorganisms in these samples is of vital importance to interpreting the full total results of such studies. In the January problem of Cold Springtime Harbor Protocols through fluorescence in situ hybridization with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes followed by signal amplification with catalyzed reporter deposition . As one of January’s featured content, it is freely available on the journal’s internet site assay is considered by many to be the gold regular for monitoring cellular immune responses.The proposed wearable sampling device would measure aerosol number, surface area, and concentration mass simultaneously and will be low cost. Today, stand-alone instruments can perform the individual types of measurements called for by Aitken and Maynard. Bringing these technologies jointly into a single bundle within the size and price parameters discussed does present a significant challenge, they write. A cost-effective integrated gadget will empower little and large nanotechnology sectors alike to reduce uncertainty over what their workers face, and enable them to build up safer working conditions stated Maynard. This will demand targeted analysis into developing fresh methodologies and new instruments. But the quick commercialization and advancement of nanotechnologies are leading to the need for effective, if not necessarily perfect, exposure measurement methods and devices to be developed as soon as possible.